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جمعه, 13 اسفند 1395 ساعت 14:49

Scalable Web Technology for the Internet of Things

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اطلاعات تکميلي

  • نام نویسندگان: Frank Matthias Kovatsch
  • چکیده شامل:

    The Internet of Things (IoT) can be considered as a modern manifestation of MarkWeiser’s

    classic vision of ubiquitous computing where tiny networked computers become part of

    everyday objects interweaving the virtual world and the physical world. The concept of the

    IoT originated some 15 years ago from linking real-world artifacts to virtual counterparts

    through radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. More recently, environments have

    become ‘smart’ by augmenting physical objects with sensing or actuation capabilities and

    networking them with digital services. The ongoing standardization of Internet protocols

    for such IoT devices enables the seamless integration of smart things into the Internet.

    This trend is expected to eventually result in hundreds of billions of connected devices

    that need to be programmed, managed, and maintained. It has been shown that Web

    technology can significantly ease this process by providing well-known patterns and tools

    for developers and users. The existing solutions are, however, often too heavyweight for

    highly resource-constrained IoT devices. Indeed, most connected devices are expected

    to remain resource-constrained, as progress in technology witnessed by Moore’s Law is

    primarily leveraged to minimize dimensions, power consumption, and unit costs.

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive solution for the seamless integration of

    highly resource-constrained IoT systems into the World Wide Web. Our thesis is that

    existing protocols and programming models do not effectually meet the needs of the IoT.

    We identify two key challenges for the vision to succeed: application-layer interoperability

    and improved usability for both developers and users. Both requirements can be met by

    an approach that amalgamates results from the field of Wireless Sensor Networks and the

    WorldWideWeb. This leads to the research questions (i) how to scaleWeb technology down

    to resource-constrained devices, (ii) how to scale it up to hundreds of billions of devices,

    and (iii) how to use it to improve the usability of the tiny networked computers. Our

    work addresses the resulting challenges with the following contributions: Being actively

    involved in the design and standardization of the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

    within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), we (i) evaluate the new Web protocol

    iii

    Abstract

    in the different components of IoT systems, namely resource-constrained devices, Cloudbased

    services, and user interaction. Based on this, we (ii) propose system architectures

    and guidelines for an optimal implementation and utilization of CoAP. Furthermore, we

    (iii) present concepts and tools for Web-like software development for the IoT. To support

    our thesis, we also (iv) provide working open source implementations of our concepts,

    which build the basis for several IoT projects in academia and industry.

    More concretely, we show in this dissertation that the CoAP protocol suite closes

    the technological gap between low-power IoT devices and the well-known patterns of

    the Web. We first consider resource-constrained environments, where efficient Web

    technology can relieve application developers from the burdens of embedded programming

    while maintaining the performance of classic approaches. In addition to a proof of

    concept and system evaluation, we give guidelines that allow for significantly smaller

    memory footprints of CoAP implementations. Next, we show that the low overhead

    of the new protocol also improves performance in unconstrained environments, such as

    IoT cloud services that have to manage the myriad of IoT devices. We present a system

    architecture for scalable back-end services that outperforms classic high-performance

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Web servers as well as other state-of-the-art CoAP

    implementations. Finally, our work evaluates usability aspects of the Web programming

    model for IoT applications. We show that Web mashups, that is, the linking of different

    services through lightweight scripting, are also directly applicable to our concepts for

    highly resource-constrained systems. Complementary, we study Web browser support for

    CoAP to fully close the gap between IoT devices and the Web. Based on these findings,

    we motivate the design decisions behind CoAP, in particular for our contributions, and

    explain how developers can improve their protocol implementations accordingly.

    Along with this dissertation, we deliver open source implementations of our approach

    that go beyond prototypes. Our Erbium (Er) REST Engine is an optimized CoAP implementation

    for constrained environments. It provides application developers with resource

    handler abstractions like regular Web frameworks while maintaining a small memory

    footprint. Erbium became the default CoAP implementation for Contiki, a popular embedded

    operating system for the IoT that is used in many industry products. Our Java-based

    Californium (Cf) CoAP framework enables high-performance CoAP services. The project

    also contains a DTLS 1.2 implementation called Scandium (Sc) and the Actinium (Ac)

    application server, a RESTful runtime system for Web-like IoT mashups. Representing

    the state of the art for RESTful IoT services, the Californium project was adopted by the

    Eclipse Foundation within its IoT Industry Working Group.

  • محل نشر: Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
  • سال انتشار: دوشنبه, 28 فروردين 1396
  • دانشگاه: Erlangen-Nürnberg
  • مقطع: دکتزا
خواندن 1847 دفعه آخرین ویرایش در دوشنبه, 28 فروردين 1396 ساعت 08:35

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